Now, the network has grown to the point that its power draw is several percent of total worldwide electricity generation capacity, putting this infrastructure on par with the energy draw of the entire aviation transport industry. At the present 46% compound annual growth rate of the data carried through the cellular network, it will draw half of all worldwide available electricity in 7 more years and all of it in 9 years. This falling efficiency and accompanied increased power consumption can no longer be ignored. It means massive increases in capital expenditures (capex) to provide and maintain the necessary power supply.
The Eridan MIRACLE RFFE module rewrites the cost equation for 5G by covering a square kilometer with 100Mbps with 5-10x less power and without a specialized power source. More information, including the original paper, can be found here.